skull symbolism

Skull Symbolism & Meaning: Ultimate Guide

The skull symbolism includes mortality, power, evil, transformation, rebellion, and transience of life. Its imagery is terrifying and unsettling, but skulls carry a lot of interesting meaning and even philosophical importance. In this article, we’ll explore the major symbolism of the skull and its use across cultures.


The skull is the center of human soul and consciousness across many cultures and religions around the world. It is where our “operating system” seats, governing our experience of the world. When we see a skull, it means the operating system is no longer there, and there is no “human” in it anymore as it used to be. It is an eerie symbol of mortality, reminding us that we have a limited life on this world, and one day, everything we have will be stripped away to the skull when we depart this place.

In Western art and culture, particularly during the Middle Ages and Renaissance periods, skulls were commonly depicted as a symbol of mortality with the “Memento Mori” theme. Artists would create elaborate artworks featuring skulls alongside other objects like hourglasses, candles, or flowers to remind viewers of the inevitability of death and the transient nature of life.

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In the ancient world, power was often determined through fierce and barbaric battles, where warriors fought until their very last breath. The victors would claim the skull of their defeated opponent as a trophy, asserting their dominance. This act of taking the skull was seen as a display of power, representing that they have control over the fallen warrior’s life force.

For example, the rulers of Aztec civilization in Mesoamerica, known as tlatoani, would wear skull-adorned headdresses or carry skull-shaped scepters to signify their authority and divine connection. In certain Native American traditions, skulls are considered powerful protective talismans. They have the ability to ward off evil spirits and negative energies, bringing spiritual protection to those who wear them.

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Over time, the nature of the skull does not change. Wars and battles bring tremendous catastrophe to the world, and the skull is still a very real and relevant image of power. To have control over the life of enemies is to have immense power. Therefore, in the 20th century, skull symbolism was often incorporated into military insignia, unit patches, and emblems to convey strength, fearlessness, and the ability to conquer adversaries.

Skull symbolism on a flag
The Yugoslav army flag with inscription:
“For king and fatherland; freedom or death”


Power and secrecy are 2 themes that always go together. To have power is to have control over others, and having confidential information (so-called intelligence) gives the party in power a lot of competitive advantage. Skulls therefore have also been indirectly associated with secrecy.

The Skull and Bones society is a secret society based at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, United States. It is one of the oldest and most prestigious secret societies in the country, founded in 1832. The society is officially known as “The Order of Skull and Bones” or simply “Bones.”

Membership in the Skull and Bones society is highly exclusive and limited to a select group of undergraduate senior students at Yale. Each year, a small number of students, referred to as “Bonesmen,” are chosen to join the society. The selection process is extremely confidential, and members are sworn to secrecy regarding the society’s rituals, activities, and membership.

skull and crossbones on the emblem of Skulls and Bones society
The Emblem of Skulls and Bones society

The Skull and Bones society has a rich history and has been associated with powerful and influential individuals. Many prominent figures in politics, business, and academia have been members of the society, including several U.S. presidents, business tycoons, and high-ranking government officials. The influence and networking opportunities provided by the society have contributed to its reputation and mystique.

The rituals and activities of the Skull and Bones society remain shrouded in secrecy until today, with limited information available to the public. It is believed that members engage in intellectual and social activities within the society, fostering camaraderie, mentorship, and lifelong connections. The society’s meeting place, known as the “Tomb,” serves as a gathering space for members and is located on the Yale campus.

It is interesting how the society chose to use the skull symbolism here. This is a reminder that once you join the society, you will be rewarded with great power not just in the school but also in the outside world, but everything about the society must be kept in absolute mystery, or else you will know the consequences.


Death is not a one-off event, but rather a point in infinity where the human soul takes a temporary rest to prepare for their next life, according to many Eastern cultures. The concept of reincarnation is quite prevalent in these regions, and therefore skulls came to also symbolize transformation and spiritual growth besides their original meaning of mortality.

In Hindu Tantra and Buddhist Tantra, a kapala, which means “skull” in Sanskrit, is a bowl-shaped cup used for rituals . In Tibet, kapalas are often adorned with valuable materials and gemstones. They serve esoteric purposes, such as facilitating higher tantric meditation to attain a transcendent state of mind quickly and offering libations to gods and deities to seek their favor.

Goddess Kali is often depicted as a fearsome and ferocious goddess with a dark complexion and a protruding tongue. Kali is associated with destruction, transformation, and the fierce aspects of the divine feminin. Kali wears a mundamala, a garland made of human skulls, embodying the destructive force of time, reminding humans of the impermanence of all things. It also symbolizes her role as a fierce protector against evil forces and negativity, annihilating ignorance, ego, and the forces that hinder spiritual growth.

Kali Goddess symbolism

Another appearance of the skulls in Hinduism is on the khatvanga. Dakshinamurti, a form of Lord Shiva as the Supreme Teacher, is often depicted sitting in a meditative pose with the “khatvanga“, a staff crafted from skulls. It represents the detachment from worldly attachments and the realization of the ultimate truth.


Death itself is a taboo subject in many culture because it represents the “ultimate unknown”. We don’t know what lies beyond death, and it raises the existential dread in many people when having to confront their own mortality. Therefore, using the images of skull for self-expression is a strong form of rebellion. Wearing or using skull decor is essentially going against one of the strongest taboos across societies.

Skull imagery found its way into subversive art movements and the world of music, particularly in genres like punk, heavy metal, and underground street art. Artists and musicians used the skull as a potent symbol to convey their dissatisfaction with societal norms, to provoke thought, and to express their rebellious spirit. It became an emblem of the unconventional, anti-establishment sentiments prevalent in these movements.

the logo of a rock band
A heavy metal rock band logo featuring skulls

Skulls also find its way into the biker and tattoo culture. The popularity of the skull image within the biker culture can be traced back to the post-World War II era when returning soldiers took to motorcycles as a means of seeking adventure and camaraderie. These veterans, known as “outlaw bikers,” formed motorcycle clubs and adopted a distinct countercultural identity. The skull imagery became an integral part of their aesthetics, representing their willingness to face danger head-on and embrace the thrill of the open road.

One of the most well-known outlaw motorcycle clubs is the Hells Angels, founded in California in 1948. The Hells Angels became synonymous with the biker culture and gained widespread recognition due to their distinct insignia, motorcycle customization, and involvement in both criminal and non-criminal activities. As you could have guessed, their logo features a skull wearing a helmet and a wing, emphasizing their rugged, rebellious image.

Hells Angels biker group logo featuring a skull and a wing


Due to their association with the negative aspects of death, skulls have become the representation of evil – the harbinger of death in an unpleasant way. One of its most popular use is in the well-known pirate flag that features a human skull and 2 crossbones. This flag is called the Jolly Roger, which pirates would hang before they launch an attack.

Interesting, pirates didn’t always display the Jolly Roger flag. They usually had various flags on their ships and would hide their true identity until they were close to their target. Then, they would raise the Jolly Roger and sometimes fire a warning shot. The purpose of the Jolly Roger was likely to let other ships know they were dealing with pirates. This gave the targeted ships a chance to surrender without a fight. In a way, this is also how pirates establish their notoriety as an aggressive and merciless force on the sea.

Jolly Roger featuring a skull

In popular culture, especially within literature, films, and other forms of media, skulls are used to represent evil or antagonistic characters. Skull imagery is usually associated with villains, monsters, or supernatural entities, symbolizing their malevolence and intent to harm. For example, The Terminator robot from The Terminator franchise is an advanced machine with a distinct skeletal appearance that evokes fear and intimidation in others.

The Terminator as a skeleton

Transience Of Life

“Memento mori” gained prominence as a phrase supposedly used after an army won a battle. A slave would be called from the troops to stand beside the victorious general. He would declare, “Remember that you, too, will die,” reminding the powerful of their human fragility even in their moment of triumph.

This idea was further developed in Christian tradition by artists who incorporated various symbols, such as skulls and ripening fruit, into funeral art and architecture. Patrick mentioned his interest in this theme during his time at Sotheby’s and found it timely to explore, especially with Ash Wednesday and Lent approaching.

Here the skull serves as a symbol of the fleeting nature of life. It reminds us that life is impermanent and that death is an inevitable part of our human existence. The skull serves as a powerful visual reminder to reflect on our mortality and to appreciate the preciousness of the time we have.

skull and hourglass


The rise of industrialization in the 19th and 20th centuries brought with it new dangers and risks in the workplace. Skull imagery was sometimes used in cautionary signs, posters, and safety campaigns to raise awareness about workplace hazards and the potential for fatal accidents. The skull served as a stark reminder of the life-threatening consequences of industrial work.

skull as symbol for poison

The skull-and-crossbones symbol, which includes a human skull and crossed bones behind it, is commonly used today as a warning sign for potential death or danger, especially in relation to poisonous substances. This symbol, or variations of it with bones or swords below the skull, was also prominently featured on the Jolly Roger, the traditional flag used by European and American seafaring pirates.

In Canada, you can find a similar symbol called WHMIS on containers to indicate that the contents are poisonous. In the United States, there are concerns that associating the skull-and-crossbones symbol with pirates might encourage children to handle toxic materials, so the Mr. Yuk symbol is also utilized to signify poison.

Skull Symbolism In Literature

In Gothic literature, skulls are often employed to create a sense of macabre and to emphasize themes of decay and mortality. They can be found in works like Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Masque of the Red Death” and Mary Shelley’s “Frankenstein,” where they contribute to the eerie atmosphere and explore the darker aspects of human existence.

In several of William Shakespeare’s tragedies, such as “Hamlet” and “Macbeth,” skulls symbolism are used to represent mortality and the inevitability of death, particularly in the famous scene known as the “Graveyard Scene” or “Yorick’s Skull.” Here, Hamlet encounters a skull, which is revealed to be the remains of Yorick, the court jester who was once a familiar figure in Hamlet’s life.

The sight of the skull prompts Hamlet to ponder the impermanence of worldly things and the insignificance of human achievements. It triggers his existential contemplation about the nature of life, the purpose of existence, and the futility of human endeavors in the face of death.

skull symbolism in Hamlet of Shakespear

Skull Symbolism In Art

During the Medieval and Renaissance periods, the skull motif became popular in Western art, particularly in Vanitas paintings. These artworks aimed to express the emptiness and fleeting nature of earthly pleasures. By juxtaposing beautiful flowers, ripe fruits, valuable objects, and attractive female figures with bare skulls, artists conveyed the idea that no matter how appealing or wealthy one may be, death is inevitable.

This can be seen as a reaction to the materialism and hedonism of the time. The rise of trade and wealth during the Renaissance led to an increased focus on worldly possessions and pleasure. The Vanitas artworks served as moralizing reminders that material wealth and physical beauty are fleeting and ultimately meaningless in the face of death.

Skull in the Vanitas art movement

In later centuries, European artists remained captivated by the symbolism and aesthetic appeal of skulls. Paul Cézanne and Pablo Picasso, among others, found inspiration in the form of skulls, incorporating them into their works with meticulous study and evoking the atmosphere of the Vanitas style.

Then, in the 20th century, the skull entered the realm of design and fashion, thanks in part to its use in propaganda art during World War II. This integration into mainstream decorative design and pop art contributed to the skull’s continued popularity today.

Skulls Symbolism In Politics

During the 19th and early 20th centuries, skulls were used as symbols of rebellion and revolution. They represented a rejection of oppressive regimes and a call for social and political change. Revolutionary groups, such as anarchists and communists, adopted the skull as a powerful image to rally their supporters and challenge the status quo.

Many political cartoons and satirical illustrations make great use of the skull imagery to criticize political figures. Here the skulls symbolize death, corruption, and the impending doom of the leaders. Sometimes the skull is also the metaphor for the level of death and destruction caused by these leaders.

shop skull art the serene decay

Skulls In Mexican Cultures

In Mexican culture, the skull takes on a more positive light and is featured in many celebrations. One notable example is the Day of the Dead (Día de los Muertos), a vibrant and joyful holiday celebrated in Mexico. During this time, elaborately decorated skulls, known as sugar skulls (calaveras de azúcar), are created as offerings to honor and remember deceased loved ones.

The skull symbolism here is not only about death, but also about life. It is believed that by celebrating and remembering the departed, their spirits can return to the earthly realm to be reunited with their families. The skulls are often adorned with colorful designs, flowers, and other decorative elements, representing the festive and lively nature of the holiday.

day of the dead in mexico

Skull symbolism is also seen in Mexican folk art, such as in the intricate patterns of ceramic skulls and in papel picado, a form of decorative paper cutting. These artistic representations of skulls highlight the rich cultural heritage of Mexico and its deep-rooted connection to honoring ancestors and embracing the continuum of life.

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